Category: Metabolic, Hematologic, Immunologic, Endocrine and Infectious Diseases

Common Fungal Infections

Most Life Threatening Fungal Infection
  • Mucormycosis
    • Black facial discharge
    • Cranial nerve dysfunction
    • Facial swelling
    • Eschar formation
When to Suspect a Fungal Infection
  • Immunocompromised (HIV, Diabetes, Organ Transplants, etc)
  • Not getting better on typical antibiotics
Other Fungal Infections
  • Aspergillus
    • Aspergilloma
    • Bronchopulmonary Aspergillosis
    • Invasive Aspergillosis
  • Coccidiomycosis
    • Southwestern United States
  • Histoplasmosis
    • North Central United States
  • Blastomycosis
    • Southeast United States
Additional Reading
  • Fungal infection archive and data sheets (CDC)

Nutritional Emergencies

Most nutrition disorders are common sense, and we don’t really treat them in the ED very often. Vitamin D deficiency with it’s osteoporosis, Vitamin C with scurvy, and iron deficiency anemia. But there are several nutritional disorders that we do see frequently in the ED. They hide in the shadows of your most malnourished patients, and you can save them if you catch the disease in time. 

Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA)

DKA is one of my favorite diagnoses to treat because it follows a nice, simple, algorithmic approach. These patients are incredibly sick, but your attending will be very impressed if you have an understanding of the basic protocol. The hardest thing to remember is that the blood sugar is the LEAST important part of DKA management. Dehydration, Hypokalemia, and Ketoacids play a much more important role.


Hyperkalemia is the single most important electrolyte abnormality you need to know for your clerkship. It is very deadly, and you need to act quickly or the patient will might go into cardiac arrest. If your patient has hyperkalemia, get and EKG and give calcium. That is the most important thing you need to remember for this week.

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